Vaccines in Development: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
RSV is a virus that can cause serious respiratory infections (infections of the lungs and airways), such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis (inflammation of the airways). RSV infection occurs throughout life.
In infants, RSV is the main cause of bronchiolitis. Most cases of bronchiolitis are mild and can be managed at home, but about 3% of cases will need hospital care. Worldwide, RSV is the second largest cause of death in children under one year of age (second only to malaria). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that RSV causes 64 million infections and 160,000 infant deaths each year. In temperate countries like the UK, RSV occurs in epidemics each winter.
In the winter months, bronchiolitis is responsible for around 1 in 6 of all UK paediatric admissions (hospital admissions of babies and children). 6% of these will need admission to intensive care. Most of these hospital admissions occur in babies who are otherwise healthy. However, babies with certain conditions are more at risk of developing more severe disease after infection (for example, babies born with heart and lung disorders and premature babies). Infants who are hospitalised with severe RSV infection are at an increased risk of developing wheeze later in life. Numbers of hospital admissions due to RSV have increased in the last 20 years.
In healthy adults RSV causes symptoms similar to those of a common cold. However, it can develop into severe disease in adults with a weakened immune system (such as bone marrow transplants) and in elderly people.
How do you get RSV?
RSV is passed from person to person by close contact. The virus can survive for several hours on surfaces such as door handles and toys. RSV can also occur in hospital outbreaks, especially on paediatric wards.
What are the symptoms of RSV?
RSV infection can cause a range of symptoms, from mild cold-like symptoms through to severe breathing difficulty.
How is RSV treated in the UK at the moment?
The main care is supportive care (such as fluids and oxygen if needed). There is one licensed anti-viral drug to treat RSV infection, but is not commonly used because of drug toxicity and limited effectiveness. Several new treatments are being tested in clinical trials in babies at the moment. The most severe cases may need artificial ventilation (mechanical breathing support) in intensive care. Almost all infant deaths from RSV are in the developing world where such expensive care is not available.
Can we prevent RSV?
There are synthetic (artificial) antibodies, which can be given to certain ‘at-risk’ infants. It is given by injection on a monthly basis during winter to provide short-term protection against infection. However, this treatment is not always effective and it is also expensive, putting it beyond the reach of countries in the developing world.
Why is a vaccine being developed for RSV?
A vaccine to prevent RSV infection might be a cost-effective way of reducing the burden of severe RSV disease. There is no licensed RSV vaccine, but a number of vaccines are being developed. The Oxford Vaccine Group is currently involved in testing three new RSV vaccines to investigate their potential. These studies are designed to assess the safety and tolerability of each vaccine, and how well each one stimulates the immune system. This might protect people from developing severe disease in the future.
Published by Sarah Loving
Medical content reviewed by Professor Andrew Pollard
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Last updated 05 November 2015