Malaria is a major health problem as nearly half of the human population is exposed to this parasite causing around 600 million clinical cases annually. Prime-boost regimes using simian adenoviral vectors and MVA expressing the clinically relevant Plasmodium falciparum ME.TRAP antigen have shown outstanding protectiv e efficacy in mouse models. We now extend those observations to macaque monkeys. Immunisation with AdCh63 elicited a median response of 869 IFN-γ SFC/million PBMCs to ME.TRAP and responses were boosted by MVA to reach 5256 SFC/million PBMCs, increasing at the same time the breadth of the T cell responses to cover the complete ME.TRAP antigen. Intramuscular vaccination was more immunogenic than the intradermal route, and MVA could be used repeatedly for up to 3 times to boost adenovirus-primed responses. An interval of 16 weeks between repeated MVA injections was optimal to enhance cytokine production by T cells and improve the CD8 multifunctional responses. Antibodies to TRAP were exceptionally high and maintained for a long period of time after the prime-boost regime. These results in non-human primates highlight the potential of this vaccination regime and encourage its future use in clinical trials. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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