Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, resistin and the APTT waveform for the early diagnosis of serious bacterial infection and prediction of outcome in critically ill children
Nielsen MJ., Baines P., Jennings R., Siner S., Kolamunnage-Dona R., Newland P., Peak M., Chesters C., Jeffers G., Downey C., Broughton C., McColl L., Preston J., McKeever A., Paulus S., Cunliffe N., Carrol ED.
<jats:sec id="sec001"> <jats:title>Objective</jats:title> <jats:p>Bacterial Infections remains a leading cause of death in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). In this era of rising antimicrobial resistance, new tools are needed to guide antimicrobial use. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), resistin, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) waveform and C-reactive protein (CRP) for the diagnosis of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children on admission to PICU and their use as prognostic indicators.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="sec002"> <jats:title>Setting</jats:title> <jats:p>A regional PICU in the United Kingdom.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="sec003"> <jats:title>Patients</jats:title> <jats:p>Consecutive PICU admissions between October 2010 and June 2012.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="sec004"> <jats:title>Measurements</jats:title> <jats:p>Blood samples were collected daily for biomarker measurement. The primary outcome measure was performance of study biomarkers for diagnosis of SBI on admission to PICU based on clinical, radiological and microbiological criteria. Secondary outcomes included durations of PICU stay and invasive ventilation and 28-day mortality. Patients were followed up to day 28 post-admission.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="sec005"> <jats:title>Main results</jats:title> <jats:p>A total of 657 patients were included in the study. 92 patients (14%) fulfilled criteria for SBI. 28-day mortality was 2.6% (17/657), but 8.7% (8/92) for patients with SBI. The combination of PCT, resistin, plasma NGAL and CRP resulted in the greatest net reclassification improvement compared to CRP alone (0.69, p<0.005) with 10.5% reduction in correct classification of patients with SBI (p 0.52) but a 78% improvement in correct classification of patients without events (p <0.005). A statistical model of prolonged duration of PICU stay found log-transformed maximum values of biomarkers performed better than first recorded biomarkers. The final model included maximum values of CRP, plasma NGAL, lymphocyte and platelet count (AUC 79%, 95% CI 73.7% to 84.2%). Longitudinal profiles of biomarkers showed PCT levels to decrease most rapidly following admission SBI.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="sec006"> <jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title> <jats:p>Combinations of biomarkers, including PCT, may improve accurate and timely identification of SBI on admission to PICU.</jats:p> </jats:sec>