A Modest Increase in 11C-PK11195-Positron Emission Tomography TSPO Binding in Depression Is Not Associated With Serum C-Reactive Protein or Body Mass Index.
Schubert JJ., Veronese M., Fryer TD., Manavaki R., Kitzbichler MG., Nettis MA., Mondelli V., Pariante CM., Bullmore ET., NIMA Consortium None., Turkheimer FE.
BACKGROUND: Immune mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. Translocator protein (TSPO)-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to assess neuroinflammation in major depressive disorder. We aimed to 1) test the hypothesis of significant case-control differences in TSPO binding in the anterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex, and insula regions; and 2) explore the relationship between cerebral TSPO binding and peripheral blood C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. METHODS: A total of 51 depressed subjects with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score >13 (median 17; interquartile range, 16-22) and 25 healthy control subjects underwent dynamic brain 11C-PK11195 PET and peripheral blood immune marker characterization. Depressed subjects were divided into high CRP (>3 mg/L; n = 20) and low CRP (<3 mg/L; n = 31). RESULTS: Across the three regions, TSPO binding was significantly increased in depressed versus control subjects (η2p = .09; F1,71 = 6.97, p = .01), which was not influenced by body mass index. The case-control difference was greatest in the anterior cingulate cortex (d = 0.49; t74 = 2.00, p = .03) and not significant in the prefrontal cortex or insula (d = 0.27 and d = 0.36, respectively). Following CRP stratification, significantly higher TSPO binding was observed in low-CRP depression compared with controls (d = 0.53; t54 = 1.96, p = .03). These effect sizes are comparable to prior major depressive disorder case-control TSPO PET data. No significant correlations were observed between TSPO and CRP measures. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous findings, there is a modest increase in TSPO binding in depressed patients compared with healthy control subjects. The lack of a significant correlation between brain TSPO binding and blood CRP concentration or body mass index poses questions about the interactions between central and peripheral immune responses in the pathogenesis of depression.