A short report on highlights of world-wide development of RIX4414: a Latin American experience.
Linhares AC., Ruiz-Palacios GM., Guerrero ML., Salinas B., Perez-Schael I., Clemens SAC., Innis B., Yarzabal JP., Vespa G., Cervantes Y., Hardt K., De Vos B.
An oral, human-derived monovalent (G1P1A) rotavirus vaccine, strain RIX4414, has been developed by GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium. The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of this vaccine were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase IIb trial conducted in Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela. Healthy infants were given two doses of vaccine (104.7, 105.2 or 105.8 ffu) or placebo at age 2 and 4 months, with routine DTPw-HBV and Hib vaccines. OPV was given separately, at least 2 weeks before or after administration of the study vaccine. A total of 2155 infants were enrolled, of whom 1618 received one of the three vaccine viral concentrations and 537 were given placebo. Analysis of efficacy included diarrheal episodes occurring from 2 weeks after second dose until one year of age. Efficacy rates against any rotavirus gastroenteritis, severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and hospitalizations for rotavirus disease were as high as 70% (46-84%; 95%CI), 86% (63-96%; 95%CI), and 93% (54-100%; 95%CI), respectively. For non-G1 (mainly G9) serotypes, RIX4414 vaccine conferred protection as high as 83% (40-97%; 95%CI) against severe gastroenteritis. A decrease was noted in the incidence of severe rotavirus-related gastroenteritis after first dose. It is demonstrated that two doses of RIX4414 are highly efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and hospitalization, including disease caused by non-G1 strains, namely G9 serotypes.