SARS-CoV-2 and Dengue Coinfection in Filipino Children: Epidemiology Profile, Clinical Presentation and Outcomes.
Pantig FMT., Clemens SAC., Clemens R., Maramba-Lazarte CC., Madrid MAC.
BACKGROUND: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in dengue-endemic regions has raised concern on the possibility of coinfection, especially in children who bear the highest burden of illness. This study determined the incidence and described the profile of Filipino children with SARS-CoV-2 and dengue coinfection, and compared disease severity and outcome in children with coinfection to a matched group of children with SARS-CoV-2 monoinfection. METHODS: This was a retrospective matched cohort study of pediatric patients 0-18 years old diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 and dengue coinfection or SARS-CoV-2 monoinfection in the Philippines and reported to the Surveillance and Analysis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Children Nationwide registry from March 01, 2020 to June 30, 2022. RESULTS: A total of 3,341 SARS-CoV-2 infections in children were reported. The SARS-CoV-2 and dengue coinfection incidence is 4.34% (n = 145). We matched 120 coinfections to monoinfections according to age, gender and timing of infection. More coinfection cases were classified as mild or moderate COVID-19, whereas more asymptomatic cases were seen in those with monoinfection. Rates were similar for severe and critical COVID-19 in both groups. Coinfections predominantly presented with typical dengue symptoms rather than COVID-19 symptoms and laboratory parameters. No differences in outcomes were observed between coinfection and monoinfection. The case fatality rates are 6.7% for coinfection and 5.0% for monoinfection. CONCLUSIONS: One in every 25 SARS-CoV-2 infections had a dengue coinfection. Continued surveillance is needed to establish the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 and dengue virus, evaluate the impact of COVID-19 and/or dengue vaccination on coinfection and monitor complications of coinfection.