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BACKGROUND: Better understanding of vaccine reactogenicity is crucial given its potential impact upon vaccine safety and acceptance. Here we report a comparison between conventional and novel (continuous) methods of monitoring temperature and evaluate any association between reactogenicity and the monocyte activation test (MAT) employed for testing four-component capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) batches prior to release for clinical use in Europe. METHODS: Healthy 7-12-week-old infants were randomised in two groups: group PCV13 2 + 1 (received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 valent (PCV13) at 2, 4 and 12 months) and group PCV13 1 + 1 (received reduced schedule at 3 and 12 months). In both, infants received the remaining immunisations as per UK national schedule (including 4CMenB at 2, 4 and 12 months of age). Fever was measured for the first 24 h after immunisations using an axillary thermometer and with a wireless continuous temperature monitoring device (iButton®). To measure the relative pyrogenicity of individual 4CMenB batches, MAT was performed according to Ph. Eu. chapter 2.6.30 method C using PBMCs with IL-6 readout. RESULTS: Fever rates detected by the iButton® ranged from 28.7% to 76.5% and from 46.6% to 71.1% in group PCV13 2 + 1 and PCV13 1 + 1 respectively, across all study visits. The iButton® recorded a higher number of fever episodes when compared with axillary measurements in both groups (range of axillary temperature fevers; group PCV13 2 + 1: 6.7%-38%; group PCV13 1 + 1: 11.4%-37.1%). An agreement between the two methods was between 0.39 and 0.36 (p 

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





7834 - 7841


4CMenB, MAT score, Monocyte activation test, Reactogenicity, iButton®, Antibodies, Bacterial, Europe, Fever, Humans, Immunization, Infant, Meningococcal Infections, Meningococcal Vaccines, Pneumococcal Vaccines, Pyrogens