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The disease burden of typhoid fever remains high in endemic areas in Asia and Africa, especially in children. Recent clinical trials conducted by the Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium show typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) to be safe, immunogenic, and efficacious at preventing blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in African and Asian children. Pakistan, Liberia, and Zimbabwe recently introduced TCV through campaigns and routine childhood immunizations, providing protection for this vulnerable population. It is essential to continue this momentum while simultaneously filling data gaps-including typhoid complications-to inform decision-making on TCV introduction. A multidisciplinary approach including surveillance, water, sanitation, and hygiene investments, and large-scale TCV introduction is needed to decrease the burden and mortality of typhoid fever.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date





S781 - S787