Nonspecific effects of oral vaccination with live-attenuated Salmonella Typhi strain Ty21a.
Pennington SH., Ferreira DM., Caamaño-Gutiérrez E., Reiné J., Hewitt C., Hyder-Wright AD., Gordon SB., Gordon MA.
Epidemiological and immunological evidence suggests that some vaccines can reduce all-cause mortality through nonspecific changes made to innate immune cells. Here, we present the first data to describe the nonspecific immunological impact of oral vaccination with live-attenuated Salmonella Typhi strain Ty21a. We vaccinated healthy adults with Ty21a and assessed aspects of innate and adaptive immunity over the course of 6 months. Changes to monocyte phenotype/function were observed for at least 3 months. Changes to innate and adaptive immune cell cytokine production in response to stimulation with vaccine and unrelated nonvaccine antigens were observed over the 6-month study period. The changes that we have observed could influence susceptibility to infection through altered immune responses mounted to subsequently encountered pathogens. These changes could influence all-cause mortality.