Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

T follicular helper (Tfh) cells have emerged as a critical limiting factor for controlling the magnitude of neonatal germinal center (GC) reactions and primary vaccine antibody responses. We compared the functional attributes of neonatal and adult Tfh cells at the transcriptomic level and demonstrated that the Tfh cell program is well-initiated in neonates although the Tfh gene-expression pattern (i.e., CXCR5, IL-21, BCL6, TBK1, STAT4, ASCL2, and c-MAF) is largely underrepresented as compared to adult Tfh cells. Importantly, we identified a TH2-bias of neonatal Tfh cells, with preferential differentiation toward short-lived pre-Tfh effector cells. Remarkably, adjuvantation with CpG-ODNs redirect neonatal pre-Tfh cells toward committed GC-Tfh cells, as illustrated by increased expression of Tfh signature genes and reduced expression of TH2-related genes.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Immunol

Publication Date





T follicular helper cells, adjuvant, neonates, transcriptional profile analysis, vaccines, Adaptive Immunity, Adjuvants, Immunologic, Aging, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Germinal Center, Immunity, Innate, Interleukin-13, Lymphopoiesis, Mice, Inbred C57BL, T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer, Th2 Cells, Transcriptome