Pertussis antibodies and vaccination coverage among healthcare professionals in Brazil is inadequate: A cross-sectional serological study.
Cardona RSB., Weckx LY., de Moraes-Pinto MI., Ramos BCF., Dos Santos ARA., Spina FG., de Araújo BC., Clemens R., Clemens SAC.
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination coverage of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is below 40%, but this data is not available for Brazil. We hypothesize that a high number of HCPs are not immune to pertussis in Brazil. Main objective was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT IgG) among HCPs. Secondary objectives were to evaluate Tdap vaccination coverage, to assess predictive factors associated with anti-PT IgG, and to estimate the decay of anti-PT IgG and time to Tdap vaccination. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional serological study in 352 HCPs who worked at São Paulo Hospital - Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) in 2020, approved by UNIFESP Ethics Committee. Data collected included sociodemographics, knowledge about Tdap, and vaccination status. Anti-PT IgG were quantified by ELISA: <10 IU/mL seronegative and ≥ 10-1000 IU/mL seropositive. Titers ≥ 10-50 IU/mL were classified low positivity, indicating no recent B. pertussis infection or Tdap vaccination; >50 IU/mL high positivity, indicating recent B. pertussis infection or Tdap vaccination, and > 100 IU/mL as acute B. pertussis infection or Tdap vaccination in the previous year. Comparisons were done by Chi-square test, multivariable logistic regression, and Pearsońs correlation, at 5% p-level. RESULTS: 331/352 HCPs were not aware the Brazilian National Immunization Program recommends Tdap for all HCPs and pregnant women. 68/339 HCPs received Tdap (mean 3.1 ± 2.0 years). 55/352 were seronegative for pertussis, all unvaccinated. 56/271 with no history of Tdap vaccination had high positivity. The probability of anti-PT IgG > 50 IU/mL was 11.5 times higher in Tdap vaccinated HCPs than in non-vaccinated (p