Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), constitutes a major global health problem. The development of improved attenuated vaccines is pressing, but delayed by the lack of appropriate preclinical models. Herein, we report that high levels of S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T cells at baseline significantly correlate with an increased risk of disease in humans challenged with a high dose (~10(4) CFU) wild-type S. Typhi. Typhoid fever development was associated with higher multifunctional S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T effector memory cells at baseline. Early decreases of these cells in circulation following challenge were observed in both S. Typhi-responsive integrin α4β7- and integrin α4β7+ CD8+ T effector memory (TEM) cells, suggesting their potential to home to both mucosal and extra-intestinal sites. Participants with higher baseline levels of S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T memory cells had a higher risk of acquiring disease, but among those who acquired disease, those with a higher baseline responses took longer to develop disease. In contrast, protection against disease was associated with low or absent S. Typhi-responsive T cells at baseline and no changes in circulation following challenge. These data highlight the importance of pre-existing S. Typhi-responsive immunity in predicting clinical outcome following infection with wild-type S. Typhi and provide novel insights into the complex mechanisms involved in protective immunity to natural infection in a stringent human model with a high challenge dose. They also contribute important information on the immunological responses to be assessed in the appraisal and selection of new generation typhoid vaccines.

Original publication

DOI

10.3389/fimmu.2017.00208

Type

Journal

Front Immunol

Publication Date

02/03/2017

Volume

8

Pages

208 - 208

Keywords

CD8+ T cells, Salmonella Typhi, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines, cytotoxicity, multifunctional, typhoid fever