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We compared the blood RNA transcriptome of children hospitalized with influenza A H1N1/09, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or bacterial infection, and healthy controls. Compared to controls, H1N1/09 patients showed increased expression of inflammatory pathway genes and reduced expression of adaptive immune pathway genes. This was validated on an independent cohort. The most significant function distinguishing H1N1/09 patients from controls was protein synthesis, with reduced gene expression. Reduced expression of protein synthesis genes also characterized the H1N1/09 expression profile compared to children with RSV and bacterial infection, suggesting that this is a key component of the pathophysiological response in children hospitalized with H1N1/09 infection.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date





1664 - 1668


Section of Paediatrics.


Humans, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human, Bacterial Infections, Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections, Cluster Analysis, Reproducibility of Results, Gene Expression Profiling, Signal Transduction, Protein Biosynthesis, Gene Expression Regulation, Adolescent, Child, Influenza, Human, Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype