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The Vaccines, Health and Society Unit (VAS) is a multidisciplinary research centre that seeks to improve the understanding of the roles played by different individuals and groups and their interaction with healthcare practice and medical research. A particular focus lies on studying actors’ attitudes and behaviour towards vaccination in society, policy, and media, across time and geographies.

  • The Vaccines, Health and Society Unit (VAS) is a multidisciplinary research centre that aims to improve understanding of the roles played by different individuals and groups and their interaction with healthcare practice and medical research.
  • The unit aims to produce theoretical and empirical research in social sciences and create a bridge to public health issues through policy advice, interventions, and public engagement. We draw on a variety of disciplines from sociology, history, behavioural science, health economics, and public policy to combine a wide set of tools and literatures. Further, being based within the Oxford Vaccine Group, benefits from the unique opportunity to interact with vaccinologists, epidemiologists, immunologists, and clinicians.
  • A particular focus lies on studying actors’ attitudes and behaviour towards vaccination in society, policy, and media, across time and geographies. More broadly, our interests are also in a wide range of public health topics, including issue prioritisation, disease history, and social mobilisation.
  • Our research unit runs regular research seminars, has ongoing collaborative writing groups on a wide range of topics, and frequently hosts visiting researchers.

Dr Samantha Vanderslott, Unit lead

Samantha Vanderslott leads the Vaccines, Health and Society Unit (VAS), based in the Oxford Vaccine Group at the University of Oxford. She is a University Research Lecturer and Martin Fellow at the Oxford Martin School working on topics at the intersection of health and society. Samantha is an internationally recognised researcher with over 30 peer-reviewed publications (including in journals such as Social Science and Medicine, Lancet Public Health, BMJ Global health, and Sociology of Health and Illness). She has given policy advice to various governments and international bodies, and frequently appears on media discussing public health issues. Her research currently focuses on public attitudes and decisions on vaccination, particularly in relation to pro-vaccination behaviours and vaccine acceptance. Prior, she pioneered the study of neglect in attention on public health issues, summarised in her book Attention and Responsibility in Global Health: The Currency of Neglect, for which she conducted field work in Brazil and China. She primarily draws on Science and Technology Studies, Medical Anthropology, Public Policy, and Political Economy in her work. Samantha holds a PhD from UCL (University College London) and has held visiting positions at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government and the Brocher Foundation in Geneva.

Dr Sam Martin, Research fellow

Sam Martin is an experienced Digital Sociologist and Digital Analyst with 10 years of expertise in using creative digital methods to analyse Big Social Data and Big Qualitative Data in the fields of digital epidemiology and digital global health. She is research consultant and digital analytics lead at the Ethox Centre, based in the Big Data Institute at Oxford University, as well as the Oxford Vaccine Group - where she works with an international team of academics on Vaccine Hesitancy amongst healthcare workers, the world of Digital Misinformation, Disinformation and Revelatory Fakes. She has also been an Alan Turing Research Fellow (Warwick affiliate), looking at the complexities and temporalities of Big Data, as well as Digital Analytics lead at the Vaccine Confidence Project (LSHTM), where she used machine learning and sentiment analysis to research the nuances of sentiment in vaccine confidence discourse across the global diaspora. She is a research fellow on the John Fell-funded project  “Vaccine Hesitancy and online misinformation consumption and distribution among frontline healthcare workers”.

Dr Tonia Thomas

Tonia Thomas joined the Oxford Vaccine Group in 2019 as Vaccine Knowledge Project Manager, and since February 2022 she supports the project as an academic visitor. She has a specific interest in vaccine delivery in humanitarian settings. She maintained the Vaccine Knowledge Project website and led the communications strategy for vaccine awareness at Oxford Vaccine Group. She has undertaken quantitative and qualitative research to understand vaccine attitudes and to identify the most effective communication tools for vaccination campaigns. She has been actively engaged with the public, health professionals, and key stakeholders to share knowledge on vaccine development and vaccine attitudes and collaborated with clinical investigators and social science researchers to ensure the work utilises the most relevant evidence-based approaches. She has also led the Patient and Public Involvement Advisory Group at OVG, including the development of the group's PPI Framework. 

Liaquat (Lucky) Khan, Communications Officer

Working as a Communications Officer, Lucky manages all Oxford Vaccine Group communications. This includes planning and implementing social media campaigns and strategy, to website management, development and design as well as providing communications support within the University of Oxford. He is responsible for marketing and promoting major studies with the group, working closely with the research team to determine their needs, he leads and oversees all aspects of research related event planning and management, including internal and external events.

Karen Ford, Immunisation Nurse Specialist

Karen Ford joined OVG over a decade ago. Her current role is Immunisation Specialist and Senior Research Nurse with responsibility for running immunisation training and education programmes. Previously roles within OVG include immunisation advisor, practice educator and paediatric research nurse. She has several peer-reviewed publications. In 1996 she completed her paediatric nursing training and bachelor of nursing degree at Southampton University. She completed her Master’s in Public Health at Oxford Brookes University in 2006 and a Post Graduate Certificate in Medical Education in 2016 at the University of Bedfordshire. Before joining OVG she worked within acute paediatrics and neonates for 6 years in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.

Kate Joynes-Burgess

Kate Joynes-Burgess is a Wellcome Trust scholar and doctoral researcher at the Oxford Internet Institute’s Programme on Democracy & Technology (DemTech) and OVG. Her research project deploys mixed methods—including digital ethnography, participant observation and content analysis—to explore the contextual influence of online misinformation upon vaccine hesitancy in the UK. Kate commenced her DPhil in Information, Communication and the Social Sciences after more than 15 years in digital and health communications, most recently as European managing director of digital at global agency, Burson Cohn & Wolfe, which she continues to serve as a senior advisor on digital innovation and integrated media. 

Dr Jonathan Kantor

Jonathan is a clinical epidemiologist, micrographic surgeon, and dermatologist, with a strong interest in health outcomes, instrument development, and behavioral epidemiology. He is editor of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology International, published by Elsevier, and has authored over 100 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters. Jonathan is also the author/ editor of four textbooks published by McGraw-Hill and a two-time recipient of the AAD Presidential Citation. He is passionate about global health and developing robust and valid instruments to better study some of the most fundamental questions in public health, including better delineating patient, public, and other stakeholder attitudes and beliefs. His interdisciplinary work at Oxford centres on developing instruments to assess public acceptance of alternatives to traditional needle and syringe-based vaccination in order to explore creative workarounds to the challenges of vaccine hesitancy.

Noémie Deom

Noémie Déom is an anthropologist interested in experimental care, the use of emerging technologies in health care, and patient/health care providers relationships. She previously received a MSc in Social Anthropology from the University of Oxford, and an MSc in linguistics from the Sorbonne-Nouvelle University. She spent several years teaching in France,  Switzerland, Australia, and Hong Kong. She is a research assistant on the John Fell-funded project  “Vaccine Hesitancy and online misinformation consumption and distribution among frontline healthcare workers”.

Sarah Spellman

Sarah has recently completed a MPhil in Medical Anthropology, with training in qualitative methods including interviewing. She conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare workers and academics involved in clinical trials to assess the efficacy of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Sarah will be expanding this original research into a DPhil, beginning this year, on interview protocols for a trial exploring a new treatment for major depressive disorder. She is a research assistant on the John Fell-funded project  “Vaccine Hesitancy and online misinformation consumption and distribution among frontline healthcare workers”.

Dr Katie Attwell (visiting January 2023)

Katie Attwell is an ARC Discovery Early Career Researcher Award Fellow, senior lecturer and academic researcher at the University of Western Australia (UWA) School of Social Sciences. She specialises in mandatory vaccination policy across Australia, Europe and The United States of America, researching the tactics their governments use to motivate people to vaccinate, how policies make it to the agenda, how they are designed, how they differ, and how they work. 

Dr Claas Kirchhelle

Claas Kirchhelle is a Lecturer in the History of Medicine at University College Dublin and Martin Fellow at the University of Oxford’s Martin School. His interdisciplinary research combines historical and biological approaches to analyse the global history of infectious diseases and the 20th century modification of our microbial environment. Over the years, his research in Oxford has focused on the global history of antibiotic use, resistance, and regulation and the implications of history for antibiotic governance. Claas has curated award-winning exhibitions on the history of antibiotics (‘Back from the Dead’, 2016-2017). Sponsored by a Wellcome Trust University Award, his new research projects at UCD explore the history of animal welfare science as well as the global history of typhoid, epidemiological surveillance, and microbial collections. Claas is a research associate at OVG a Co-PI on “Typhoid, Cockles, and Terrorism”.

Prof Patricia Kingori

Patricia Kingori is a sociologist whose primary expertise lies in exploring the everyday ethical experiences of frontline workers in global health. Her research interests intersect the sociology of science and medicine, STS, bioethics and she has extensive experience of undertaking critical examinations of ethics in practice in different countries in Africa and South East Asia. This work has been supported through various funders, including the Wellcome Trust and the Grand Challenges Research Fund (GCRF). Patricia is a PI on the John Fell-funded project “Vaccine Hesitancy and online misinformation consumption and distribution among frontline healthcare workers”.

Dr Sally Frampton

Sally Frampton is a historian of medicine and healthcare, primarily working on Britain from 1750 onwards. She has a long-standing interest in the history of surgery and has written extensively on surgical risk and innovation. Her current research explores the global development of medical journalism as a specialist form of writing in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and how it has shaped the meaning of medicine. She also writes about the history of first aid and how it became a cultural phenomenon in Victorian Britain. As Humanities and Healthcare Fellow she works on fostering greater interdisciplinary collaboration at the University between humanities researchers and the Medical Sciences Division, including through the ‘Infecting Minds’ project. Sally is a Co-I on the John Fell-funded project “Vaccine Hesitancy and online misinformation consumption and distribution among frontline healthcare workers”.

Dr Katharina T Paul

Katharina is a senior postdoctoral fellow and lecturer at the University of Vienna (Faculty of Social Sciences, department of Political Science). She is interested in vaccination policy and its role in Austrian politics as well as the broader EU context. In June 2021, she was awarded a START Prize by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF). The project is titled Valuing Vaccination: A multi-sited policy valuography and VAS is a collaborating on this project.

Dr Emily Webster

Emily Webster is a assistant professor at the University of Durham. She received her PhD in History and MS in Public Health Sciences from the University of Chicago in 2021. Emily’s research sits at the intersection of environmental history, history of medicine, urban studies, and health studies. Her dissertation, "Microbial Empires: Changing Ecologies and Multispecies Epidemics in British Imperial Cities, 1837-1910," combines historical and biological methods to examine the relationship between environmental change and the emergence of epidemic disease in the United Kingdom, India, and Australia in the nineteenth century.  An interdisciplinary researcher, Emily has also received training in epidemiology and quantitative research methods. Her masters thesis, "Yersinia pestis Infection in Rats and Neighborhood-Level Characteristics as Risk Factors for Human Mortality in the Bombay Plague Epidemic, 1905-1906,” used epidemiological modelling to assess risk for plague mortality during the Third Plague Pandemic. Her interdisciplinary research has received funding from the Social Science Research Council and the National Science Foundation. She is a research associate on the AHRC-IRC-funded project “Typhoid, Cockles, and Terrorism”.

Current projects concentrate on vaccine hesitancy and public policy, trial and research participation, and outbreak response. We use mixed methods, including qualitative interviews, focus groups, and surveys, to undertake country comparisons, policy reviews, literature reviews and case studies. Our expertise lies in historical research (archival research, oral histories), online analysis (or rumour, misinformation), and social group interviewing (ethnography, participant observation).

Vaccine hesitancy and online misinformation

Vaccine Hesitancy and online misinformation consumption and distribution among frontline healthcare workers”. explores the link with vaccine hesitancy and the consumption and distribution of misinformation. This John Fell-funded research will address the ways in which frontline healthcare workers such as nurses and doctors contribute to the sharing of and support for misinformation in relation to COVID-19 vaccines. Given the trust that the public has in healthcare workers, it is crucial that both clinicians and policy makers understand the potential influence and impact that their perspectives might have on public health. This research will enable researchers from diverse subject backgrounds to come together to strengthen our understanding of this phenomenon from the particular perspective of frontline healthcare workers. The research team will explore COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among frontline and key healthcare workers in the UK, Brazil, Kenya and South Africa - locations where the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine is being trialled. In doing so they draw upon academic disciplines including sociology, ethics, social media analysis and history, and use research methods including media analysis, historical investigation, and interviews with frontline healthcare workers. The overarching aim of the project is to provide relevant data that will strengthen both medical research and public health policy, with the expectation that this should be of benefit both to the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine roll-out but also the development and delivery of vaccines more broadly. It is led by PI Prof Patricia Kingori with Co-Is Dr Samantha Vanderslott and Dr Sally Frampton.

Key publications:

Martin, S., and Vanderslott, S. (2021). “Any idea how fast ‘It’s just a mask!’ can turn into ‘It’s just a vaccine!’”: From mask mandates to vaccine mandates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccine. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.10.031



Led by Dr Samantha Vanderslott, ’COVQUAL: trial participants motivations, views, and experiences’ is a collaborative, interdisciplinary, and mixed-methods research project surveying and interviewing vaccine trial participants during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recruited from a purposeful sample of 770 healthy volunteers aged 18–55 years enrolled in a first-in-human COVID-19 vaccine trial in Oxford, UK. The research aims to find out about the participants’ motivations, views, and experiences in the trial, which also involved reflections on the pandemic and a (then) future COVID-19 vaccine. For the survey, we received 349 responses, and we conducted semi-structured interviews with 102 participants.

Key publications:

Pilbeam, C., Anthierens, S., Vanderslott, S., Tonkin-Crine, S., & Wanat, M. (2022). Methodological and ethical considerations when conducting qualitative interview research with healthcare professionals: reflections and recommendations as a result of a pandemic. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 21.

Vanderslott, S., Palmer, A., Thomas, T., Greenhough, B., Stuart, A., Henry, J.A., English, M., Naude, R.D.W., Patrick-Smith, M., Douglas, N. and Moore, M., (2021) Co-producing Human and Animal Experimental Subjects: Exploring the Views of UK COVID-19 Vaccine Trial Participants on Animal Testing. Science, Technology, & Human Values. November. doi:10.1177/01622439211057084

Vanderslott, S., Emary, K., te Water Naude, R., English, M., Thomas, T., Patrick-Smith, M., Henry, J., Douglas, N., Moore, M., Stuart, A. and Hodgson, S.H., (2021). Vaccine nationalism and internationalism: perspectives of COVID-19 vaccine trial participants in the United Kingdom. BMJ Global Health6.10: e006305

Typhoid, Cockles, and Terrorism

Led by Co-PIs Dr Samantha Vanderslott and Dr Claas Kirchhelle, ‘Typhoid, Cockles, and Terrorism: The turbulent history of Anglo-Irish control in revolutionary Dublin’ explores the turbulent history of typhoid in Dublin and is funded by the Irish Research Council and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Digital Humanities initiative. We aim to explore the intimate connection between imperial and revolutionary public health politics in 20th century Dublin. We will conduct innovative research on the (post)colonial politics of Anglo-Irish public health and typhoid control in Dublin. They will design a major blended physical/digital exhibition (hosted at Dublin City Library and Archive and the Royal College of Physicians in Ireland), educational resources and create an open access database of spatially coded historical disease, environmental, and infrastructural data. We will use a mix of historical and digital humanities methods to analyse and digitise historical disease data, medical correspondence, cultural ephemera, infrastructural records, and meteorological data to understand why British bacteriological and sanitary interventions proved impractical in Dublin and how they were perceived by local populations. We aim to make significant contributions to research and engage audiences from all age groups on the importance of equitable access to effective sanitary infrastructure and vaccines. See the award announcement here:

Key publications:

Saldanha, S., Kirchhelle, C., Webster, E., Vanderslott, S. and Vaz, M., 2022. Between paternalism and illegality: a longitudinal analysis of the role and condition of manual scavengers in India. BMJ Global Health, 7(7), p.e008733.


Our NIHR-funded project will develop, implement, evaluate and disseminate the Collaborative and Digital Analysis of Big Qual Data in Time Sensitive Contexts (LISTEN) method. This overarching aim consists of four sub-aims: (1) To inform and refine a method for collaborative and digital rapid analysis of big qualitative data. (2) To test the method with real datasets developed in the context of emergency responses. (3) To evaluate method quality indicators and implementation requirements. (4) To co-develop fidelity assessment tools, educational materials, and consolidate a network of experts, and to promote the use of this approach in a wide range of organisations and contexts. The primary outcomes of this study will be: a LISTEN website and a project page on the Open Science Framework (OSF) to share openly available and accessible study results; an established network of expert researchers and stakeholders; five scientific publications with corresponding infographics and animation; a toolkit/manual of the method, and teaching materials to include in RREAL training courses and beyond. The aims of this study and the LISTEN method are informed by coproduction and participatory research methods that allow for the co-creation of knowledge16. Therefore, stakeholders have informed the development of this proposal, will provide guidance in the form of a Consultation Group throughout the project, and contribute to the development of primary study outputs. Scientific publications will include a stakeholder commentary, this is a text of 300-400 words written independently by a person with lived experience relevant to each study to reflect on the results and implications in practice. Dr Norha Vera San Juan and Dr Cecila Vindrola are the Co-PIs with Dr Samantha Vanderslott and Dr Sam Martin as Co-Is.

Key publications:

Manby, L., Dowrick, A., Karia, A., Maio, L., Buck, C., Singleton, G., Lewis-Jackson, S., Uddin, I., Vanderslott, S., Martin, S. and Vindrola-Padros, C., (2022). Healthcare workers’ perceptions and attitudes towards the UK’s COVID-19 vaccination programme: a rapid qualitative appraisal. BMJ open, 12(2).


The ‘Lymph Node Single-Cell Genomics Ancestry (LEGACY) Network’ is a Chan Zuckerberg-funded project. The discovery of vaccines effective against global and emerging pathogens is complicated by geographic differences in vaccine responsiveness. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to differential immune responses after vaccination remains poorly defined, and is complicated by the spectrum of immune cell types involved. This group will contextualize the vaccine response of lymph nodes through the creation of an ancestrally diverse single-cell atlas. UK residents from diverse ancestral backgrounds including East and West African and South and South-East Asian ancestries, will be invited to participate. Throughout the project, experts in patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE) will maximize local community involvement in vaccine discovery. Community outreach will be fostered by hosting vaccine engagement events with the British Society for Immunology, Imperial College London Great Exhibition Road Festival, and Oxford University Natural History Museum, designed to expressly engage scientists, researchers and the public, particularly those from Black, Asian, and other underreseached communities. These findings will inform scientists’ understanding of the role of ancestry in the immune response, enabling the design of better vaccines that protect health and prevent disease for the benefit of everyone. Prof. Teressa Lamb and Dr Samantha Vanderslott are Co-PIs.

Key publications:

Kadambari, S. and Vanderslott, S. (2021). Lessons about COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among minority ethnic people in the UK. The Lancet Infectious Diseases.


Vaccines for the World

Vaccines for the World aims to produce a comprehensive oral history of the Oxford Vaccine Group's (OVG) origins and impact, as well as of the Oxford COVID-19 response. Led by Dr Samantha Vanderslott and Dr Claas Kirchhelle, the project brings together key actors involved in establishing OVG, developing and trialling new vaccines ranging from meningococcus B to typhoid, and playing a leading role in Oxford’s Jenner Institute/OVG COVID-19 response. ‘Vaccines for the World’ has three goals: (1) Produce a comprehensive account of the research environment, technological and scientific background, and wider political, economic, and social factors that enabled OVG to emerge as a leading global institute for vaccine development and trials. (2) Create a time capsule for future crisis responders interested in assessing how Oxford decisions on vaccine development, trials, and finance were made in the face of the substantial uncertainties and social disruption caused by SARS-CoV-2. (3) Assess ways forward for vaccine development and pandemic preparedness in light of recent experiences. We plan to launch our complete database of interviews and indexed transcripts in late 2022.

Key publications:

Hill, M., Vanderslott, S., Volokha, A., & Pollard, A. J. (2022). Addressing vaccine inequities among Ukrainian refugees. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 22(7), 935-936.

Fairgrieve, D. Holm, S. Howells G. Kirchhelle, C. Vanderslott, S. (2021). In favour of a bespoke COVID-19 vaccines compensation scheme, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1473-3099,


Project AViD (Anthropological Exploration of Facilitators and Barriers to Vaccine Deployment and Administration During Disease Outbreaks), headed by Shelley Lees, worked across DRC, Sierra Leone, Brazil, India and Uganda, adopting both a top-down and bottom-up approach to exploring vaccine acceptance. This project took a critical anthropological approach to exploring what actions can be taken to optimise vaccine acceptance during a disease outbreak. Whilst some countries already face logistical challenges to vaccine deployment and administration, these system weaknesses are exacerbated during times of disease outbreaks. In addition to access challenges, some populations have underlying distrust in national and international bodies that provide vaccines, which can also amplify in times of emergencies, as seen in the recent Ebola and Zika outbreaks. Rumours and misinformation are also commonly spread in times of outbreaks, especially when the diseases are unfamiliar, or there is an absence of information available.

Key publications:

Vanderslott, S., Enria, L., Bowmer, A., Kamara, A., & Lees, S. (2022). Attributing public ignorance in vaccination narratives. Social Science & Medicine, 115152.

Burns, R. Enria, L. Bowmer, A. Vanderslott, S. Lees, S. (October 2020) Clinical and Vaccine Trials for COVID-19: Key Considerations from Social Science, SSHAP

The unit is contributing to several collaborative projects that are based elsewhere.


‘Valuing Vaccination: A multi-sited policy valuography’ VALUE-VACC is led by Dr Katharina T Paul and funded by the FWF (Austrian Science Fund) as a START project. The project examines how different societal actors value vaccination. In particular, the project explores valuation practices of governmental and industry actors, researchers, parents, and a collection of actors on social media. The basic starting point of this project is that valuations of vaccination are intrinsically linked with valuations of its governance. The project consists of five workpackages that correspond to five sites of governance: policy (WP1), primary care (WP2), industry (WP3), research (WP4), and social media (WP5).

For more information see:


The ‘Rapid Research Evaluation and Appraisal Lab’ (RREAL) aims to improve the quality and impact of rapid research used to study and evaluate clinical and health service models and interventions for time-sensitive contexts by focusing on the three areas of work:

  1. The development of rapid methodologies in health services research with an aim to understand and improve the organisation and management of healthcare delivery around the world. 
  2. Clinical trials with the purpose of understanding local socio-cultural contexts and integrating rapid qualitative research approaches in trial design and implementation.
  3. Global health and health emergencies with a specific emphasis on emerging needs in low - and middle - income countries (LMICs) and under resourced settings

For more information see:

Typhoid past, present, and future

'Typhoid Past, Present and Future'  tracked the history of typhoid in Oxford and connected it to present day challenges of control and treatment for the disease. As Co-PIs Dr Samantha Vanderslott and Dr Claas Kirchhelle organised a programme of research and curated an award-winning multi-country exhibition 'Typhoidland’ on Our feature animation for this exhibition won the Bristol Science Film Festival Best Factual Film Prize and the digital games we developed were awarded gold for Best Learning Game at the Learning Technologies Awards. We also received extensive media coverage by BBC One South, BBC Radio 4, BBC World Service. In reviews, the Daily Info called it “An Audacious Exhibition” and The New Scientist picked it as one of their “Best new exhibitions”. As part of this project, we edited a special supplement for the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases for which we produced a summary article for The Conversation and our research was covered in over 90 national and international outlets (the World Economic Forum, New York Post, The Sun, and The Telegraph).

Key publications:

Kirchhelle, C. (2022). Typhoid: The Past, Present, and Future of an Ancient Disease. New York, US: Scala Arts & Heritage Publishers. ISBN: 978 1 78551 383 1

Vanderslott S., Phillips MT, Pitzer VE, Kirchhelle C. Water and Filth: Reevaluating the First Era of Sanitary Typhoid Intervention (1840–1940). Clin Infect Dis. 2019; 69 (Supplement_5): S377-S384. doi:10.1093/cid/ciz610

Kirchhelle C, Pollard AJ, Vanderslott S. (2019) Typhoid—From Past to Future. Clin Infect Dis. 69 (Supplement_5):S375-S376. doi:10.1093/cid/ciz551