Accelerating clinical development of a live attenuated vaccine against Salmonella Paratyphi A (VASP): study protocol for an observer-participant-blind randomised control trial of a novel oral vaccine using a human challenge model of Salmonella Paratyphi A infection in healthy adult volunteers.
McCann N., Emary K., Singh N., Mclean F., Camara S., Jones E., Kim YC., Liu X., Greenland M., Conlin K., Hill J., Verheul M., Robinson H., Angus B., Ramasamy MN., Levine MM., Pollard AJ.
INTRODUCTION: This is the first efficacy study of an oral live attenuated vaccine against Salmonella Paratyphi A using a human challenge model of paratyphoid infection. S. Paratyphi A is responsible for 3.3 million cases of enteric fever every year, with over 19 000 deaths. Although improvements to sanitation and access to clean water are vital to reduce the burden of this condition, vaccination offers a cost-effective, medium-term solution. Efficacy trials of potential S. Paratyphi vaccine candidates in the field are unlikely to be feasible given the large number of participants required. Human challenge models therefore offer a unique, cost-effective solution to test efficacy of such vaccines. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is an observer-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial phase I/II of the oral live-attenuated vaccine against S. Paratyphi A, CVD 1902. Volunteers will be randomised 1:1 to receive two doses of CVD 1902 or placebo, 14 days apart. One month following second vaccination all volunteers will ingest S. Paratyphi A bacteria with a bicarbonate buffer solution. They will be reviewed daily in the following 14 days and diagnosed with paratyphoid infection if the predefined microbiological or clinical diagnostic criteria are met. All participants will be treated with antibiotics on diagnosis, or at day 14 postchallenge if not diagnosed. The vaccine efficacy will be determined by comparing the relative attack rate, that is, the proportion of those diagnosed with paratyphoid infection, in the vaccine and placebo groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study has been obtained from the Berkshire Medical Research Ethics Committee (REC ref 21/SC/0330). The results will be disseminated via publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentation at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15485902.